The Mastabas of Qar and Idu G 7101 and 7102 - Digitally Revised and Enhanced Edition

Part I - Qar G 7101

Section 7 - Associated Shafts and Burials


Section 7 - Associated Shafts and Burials

Publications October 13. 2019

The mastaba of Qar (G 7101). Associated shafts and burials. Based on fig. 1. Plan of area north of G7110-7120; Qar (G7101) and Idu (G7102) (Click to enlarge)

Associated Shafts and Burial Chambers

There are four shafts with burial chambers within the area of the reconstructed mastaba. The chief shaft with the burial of Qar (G 7101 M) descends just south of the serdab and north of the western interior chapel chamber (E). The second shaft (G 7101 A) lies just west of the offering slab in the alcove of the eastern interior subterranean chapel chamber (F), and would seem to be associated with this chapel, perhaps as the burial of Qar’s wife. The two other closely associated shafts are G 7101 W, just east of the upper stairs and north of the lower stairs, and G 7101 X, immediately east of G 7101 W. On the west are about twenty additional shafts, most of them presumably later than the tomb of Qar and unrelated to it. The four associated shafts will be described herewith.


Main burial G 7101 M (click to locate)The shaft measures 1.48m. square and descends - 7.26 m. in the rock (fig. 6). 

Figure 6. Qar (G 7101). Section and elevation of Qar burial (G 7101 M) (Click to enlarge)

The rock surface descends from south to north and is repaired on the north with masonry and rubble to a maximum height of 1.64 m. Above the rock and rubble is a crude brick well preserved to a height of 8.32 m. This crude brick lining evidently continued to the top (roof) of the original mastaba. The chamber is on the south, of type 5 b (2), 3.08 x 2.56 x 2.04 m. high, area 7.88 sq. m., capacity 15.07 cu. m., with a short passage .90 m. north-south, 1.36 m. wide, and 2.04 m. high. It was blocked with bonded masonry, vertically, partly in and partly outside the passage, torn away on west side to lowest course, and plastered with gypsum (type IV b (1)); see figs. 4, 6. 

Figure 4. Qar (G 7101). Section from east to west looking south (Click to enlarge)

There is a stone coffin cut from the rock with a stone bench, 2.64 x 1.6m., and .34 m. high; cavity 2.22 x .68 m., .70 m. deep, covered by a single massive slab, 2.70 x 1.20m., .44 m. thick, with rounded upper edges. The shaft had been cleared and refilled, and only a few fragments of human bones remained; the lid of the coffin had been shifted and the cavity cleared out. For objects, see list at end. On the east wall is a single band of text reading left to right (fig. 7): prt-ḫrw [...] ḥtp di nswt Inpw tpy ḏw.f pr ḫrw (t ḥnḳt pꜣt) n imy-r ẖnw ẖry tp nswt Ḳꜣr, “invocation offering [...] a boon which the king gives and Anubis upon his hill, that an invocation offering (bread, beer, cakes) come forth for the overseer of the residence, he who is at the head of the king, Qar.” 

Figure 7. Qar (G 7101). Walls of burial chamber of Qar (G 7101 M) (Click to enlarge)

Beneath this band are lines of water and various offerings too faint to be copied. On the opposite west wall near the ceiling is another horizontal band of text, from right to left: ḥtp di nswt Ws-ir Inpw tpy ḏw.f imy wt nb tꜣ ḏsr pr ḫrw (t ḥnḳt pꜣt) n imꜣḫw ḫr nṯr ꜥꜣ imy-r ẖnw Ḳꜣr, “an offering which the king gives and Osiris and Anubis upon his hill, who is in the place of bandaging, lord of the necropolis, that an invocation offering (bread, beer, cakes) come forth for the overseer of the residence, Qar.” Below this band on the right are the seven traditional oils in two rows with labels and faint traces of other offerings, including two necklaces, and three long bundles designated in black paint as 500 (?) units of royal linen, the linen painted white with red cords and black ties and set on a rectangle of yellow (a chest?) with black outlines. On the south wall, near the ceiling, is a horizontal band of text from left to right: ḥtp di nswt Ws-ir nb Ḏdw n imy-r ẖnw ẖry tp nswt  imꜣḫw ḫr nṯr ꜥꜣ nb pt Ḳꜣr,“ a boon which the king gives and Osiris, lord of Busiris, to the overseer of the residence, he who is at the head of the king, the one well-provided with the great god, lord of the heavens, Qar.” Below are very faint traces of offerings, including ducks, cakes, etc. with indications of green paint. The north wall of the burial chamber has the door on the right (east) and a panel on the left with nine vessels in two rows, four on the top and five below. The jars with handles in the upper row are painted white (left) and black (right), with the cylindrical jars painted white below and red at the top. In the lower row the cylindrical jars are all painted red above and below, from left to right, white, black, white, white, black. The bands in color beneath the jars are painted from top to bottom: black, red, black, white, black. 

Jequier, Le monument funeraire de Pepi II, vol. III, pls. 52, 55 (Source: http://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/jequier1940bd3/0212 and http://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/jequier1940bd3/0218) (Click to enlarge)

For similarly decorated burial chambers, see Jequier, Le monument funeraire de Pepi II, vol. III, pls. 52, 55; Drioton and Lauer, ASAE 55 (1958) pls. 17-19, following p. 251; James, Khentika, pl. 40; Jequier (Capart?), Chambre fun. de la sixième dyn., pls. I-V.

 

Wife’s burial G 7101 A (Click to locate). This shaft lies behind the stela in room F. It measures 1.05 x 1.16 m., and is -7.10 m. deep in the rock and not lined above. At the bottom a chamber opens to the east with a second shaft in its floor, .93 x .96 m., - 2.65 m. in the rock below the floor of the upper chamber; the total depth of the lower chamber from ground surface is - 10.15 m. The upper chamber, on the east, is of type 6 a (3), 2.90 x 2.00 m., 1.60 m. high, area: 5.80 sq. m., capacity: 9.28 cu. m., with a step down from bottom of upper shaft of .40 m. There is a small canopic (receptacle) in the floor. No remains of blocking. In the floor along the east side a coffin pit had been begun but abandoned when the lower shaft was opened in the southeast corner of the floor. The chamber at the bottom of the lower shaft opened to the west: type 6 a (2). It measured 2.62 x 2.16 m., 1.15 m. high; area: 5.65 sq. m.; capacity: 6.49 cu. m. There were no remains of blocking; the chamber was plundered and refilled with thieves’ debris. For objects, see list. See fig 5 for section.

Figure 5. Qar (G7101). Sections of pits G7101 A to L (Click to enlarge)

Shaft in mastaba (G 7101 X). In northeast corner of mastaba. It measured 1.21 x .91m., - 3.40 m. in rock, lined above with small masonry and crude brick at top: 2.45 m. (about 8 courses), reaching to about the ground level of the mastaba. The chamber (of type 6 a (2)) opened to the east: 2.20 x 1.06 m., 1.00 m. high; area: 2.33 sq. m.; capacity 2.33 cu. m. No remains of blocking. The coffin pit was oriented north-south in the middle of the chamber: 1.87 x .80 m., .60 m. deep, roofed with two slabs, of which one in place, and found plundered. For objects in filling of shaft, see list. See fig 8 for section.

Figure 8. Qar (G 7101). Sections of pits G 7101 N to Z (Click to enlarge)

Shaft in mastaba (G 7101 W), west of former. It measured 1.16 x .97 m., -3.35 m. in rock lined above with small masonry and crude brick on top: 2.70 m., eight courses reaching to ground level of mastaba. The chamber of type 6 a (3) opened to the west: 2.18 x 1.07 m., 1.00 m. high; area: 2.33 sq. m.; capacity 2.33 cu. m. (same as chamber of G 7101 X). No remains of blocking; completely plundered. For relief fragments in debris of shaft, see list. See fig 8 for section.

Shafts to West of Mastaba Area (figs. 5, 8, 9)

The first group of shafts is directly west of shaft M and consists of a square block of four shafts (B, C, D, E), with two others to the south (F, G). West of F is a group of three (H, I, K). Five other shafts seem to be clearly intrusive. They are recorded below in order of the alphabetical letters.

G 7101 B (figs. 5, 9) (Click to locate). In northeast corner of four shafts with crude brickwork linings bonded together. Measurements: .80 x .78 m., -4.80 m. deep in rock, crosses a rock scarp - 4.40 m. on east and - 5.95 m. on west, lined above with crude brick, 2.40 m. on east and .90 m. on west. Chamber of type 6 a (2) opening to west, 2.39 x 1.46 m., 1.07 m. high; area: 3.48 sq. m.; capacity: 3.72 cu. m. Blocking not preserved. Coffin pit 2.47 x .60 m., .60 m. deep, roofed with two slabs found displaced in chamber. Inscribed on center of lid: ḥtp di nswt lnpw tpy ḏw.f imy wt nb [tꜣ] ḏsr ḳrs nfr imꜣḫw n [... ...] imꜣḫw smr(?) ẖry tp nswt Nḫt[i], “a boon which the king gives and Anubis upon his hill, he who is in the place of bandaging, lord of [the necropolis] a goodly burial and a well provided state [...] the well provided one, the companion, he who is at the head of the king, Nakhti.” On the west wall a horizontal band of incised text from right to left:  ḥtp di nswt Inpw tpy ḏw.f imy wt nb tꜣ ḏsr ḳrs.t(i).f nfr m ẖryt-nṯr imꜣḫw sš Nḫti, “a boon which the king gives and Anubis, he who is on his hill, he who is in the place of bandaging, lord of the necropolis, that he may be well buried in the cemetery, the well provided one, the scribe Nakhti.” On the south wall a horizontal text incised from left to right: imꜣḫw ḫr nb.f smr sš Nḫti, “well provided before his lord, the companion, the scribe, Nakhti.” On the east wall, south of the doorway, and continued on south wall, text left to right: ḥtp di nswt Ws-ir pr ḫrw (t ḥnḳt pꜣt) n imꜣḫw ḫr nṯr šps nswt Nḫti, “a boon which the king gives and Osiris that an invocation offering (bread, beer, cakes) come forth for the well provided one with the god, the king’s nobleman (?), Nakhti.” The similarity of the burial chamber with texts to that of Qar himself (G 7101 M) suggests that the burial is contemporary with the latter and that one might seek to identify Nakhti with the overseer of ka-servants by this name on the west wall of the court (C), the first of the kneeling figures in the lower register before Qar and his wife Gefi. The titles do not agree, but Nakhti of the burial chamber with his titles there cited might have functioned as a chief ka-priest for Qar and be only so designated in the relief.

In a block found north of subsidiary pyramid I a, thus just west of the Qar complex, 24-12-135, Boston, 29 x 32 x 12 cm. (pl. XXXIV c; fig. 9 a), the Nakhti represented may well be Qar’s brother and identifiable with the individual buried in 7101 B, as seems probable from the occurrence of two of the same titles. 

Pl. XXXIV c. Block found north of pyramid 1 a (24-12-135), Nakhti, perhaps Qar’s brother (left), Figure 9 a. Qar (G 7101). Relief of Nakhti from north of pyramid 1 a (right) (Click to enlarge)

In the relief fragment Nakhti is represented facing right before a table of offering breads and a fragmentary offering list. He wears a curled wig reaching to the shoulders, wears the leopard skin garment, and holds a folded cloth in his left hand against his chest. On his left shoulder is the hand of his wife, indicating that her missing figure was seated to his rear. Three columns of text are preserved for the lower part only: (1) ...ḥm nṯr [...]t, šps nswt, Nḫti; (2) [...] ẖry tp nswt; (3) [...] rꜥ nb, “priest of [Akhet-Khufu?], king’s nobleman, Nakhti, (2) […] he who is at the head of the king, (3) […] every day.” The first title ends in t and the pyramid or sun temple determinative, and the designation may possibly be restored as Akhet-Khufu. The other two titles are represented in the burial chamber of 7101 B. This relief of Nakhti and his wife at least suggests the existence of an independent chapel for him, and it is possible that the offering stone which appears in the plan indicates its site as just west of the upper stairs of the Qar complex and just north of the shaft of Nakhti (7101 B). No other blocks can be assigned to this chapel with the possible exception of the sunshade blocks provisionally assigned to the Qar stairway (figs. 19 e-g) and a single unplaced block evidently found at some distance away (marked, perhaps erroneously 25-5-79, G 7202, 50 x 96 cm.). 

Figure 19. e-g. Qar (G 7101). Blocks with sunshades, Boston (Click to enlarge)

The tomb owner, unnamed, faces left. He wears a shoulder length wig, a broad collar, and the leopard skin garment. His right hand with a bracelet on the wrist holds a long staff. To the left are the remains of registers. The first column of text bears the fragmentary phrase: [i]wꜣw innw n, “cattle brought to,” and the following columns end in the phrases nb.f, “his lord,” ḥꜣb, as in the title ẖry ḥꜣbt, and f. The assignment of this additional block (pl. XXXIV d) to the chapel of Nakhti is at best speculative; it obviously is part of a larger viewing scene.

Pl. XXXIV d. Block possibly from Qar and Idu complex

G 7101 C. (Click to locate) South of B in the southeast corner of the block of four shafts. The shaft measures 1.03 x 1.00 m., - 2.60 m. on east and - 3.05 m. on west in rock, lined above with crude brick: 2.05 m. on east and 1.05 m. on west. The chamber of type 6 a (2) opens on the west and measures 2.35 x 1.51 m., 1.20 m. high; area: 3.55 sq. m.; capacity: 4.26 cu. m. Coffin pit: 2.30 x 60 m., 50 m. deep, no slabs preserved. No blocking or trace of burial, completely plundered.

G 7101D(Click to locate) West of B in northwest corner of block of four. Shaft measured .90 x 1.00 m., - 1.13m. in rock lined above with crude brick for .78 m. Type 7 X. No remains of burial.

G 7101 E(Click to locate) In southwest corner of block of four shafts, south of D. Measured .80 x .89 m., - 2.25 m. in rock, lined above with crude brick for .90 m. Chamber of type 6 a (2) opening to west: 1.90 x .89 m., .95 m. high; area: 1.69 sq. m.; capacity 1.60 cu. m. Found open with no remains of burial.

G 7101 F(Click to locate) South of G, in angle between G 7101 and face of G 7110 (Kawab). Shaft .84 x .84 m., -1.35 m. in rock, lined above with crude brick .40 m. The chamber is of type 6 a (2) and opens to west; it measures 1.57 x 57 m., .95 m. high; area: .89 sq. m.; capacity: .94 cu. m. Found completely plundered.

G 7101 G(Click to locate) In contact with southeast corner of block of four (B-E) and north of F. Shaft measures .80 x .80 m., - 1.00 in rock, lined above with crude brick .45 m. The chamber of type 6 a (2) opens to the east and measures 1.50 x .65 m., .80 m. high; area: .97 sq. m.; capacity .77 cu. m. No remains of blocking. Extended burial on back, head to north, apparently intruded in Ptolemaic period.

G 7101 H(Click to locate) In northeast corner of block of three shafts with crude brick lining bonded together. Shaft .87 x .86 m., -2.50 in rock, lined above with c.b. .45 m. Chamber of type 6 a (2) on east: 2.1 I x .63 m., 1.00 m. high; area: 1.33 sq. m.; capacity 1.33 cu. m. Found open and empty.

G 7101 I(Click to locate) South of H. Shaft 1.00 x .95m., - 1.1 in rock, lined with c. b. above .50m. No chamber. Type 7 X. No remains of burial. See list for objects found intrusive in shaft and in debris from south of it, perhaps in whole or part from shaft H.

G 7101 J(Click to locate) West of shaft D and in contact with the block of four. Shaft 1.00 x 1.00 m., -2.1 m. in rock, lined above with c. b. .80 m. No chamber. Type 7 X.

G 7101 K(Click to locate) Attached on west to block H.-I. Shaft 2.17 x .90 m., -2.85 m. in rock, lined above with c.b. .55 m. Long north-south rectangular shaft with side chamber. Side chamber opening along entire west side of shaft: 2.81 x .75 m., 1.20 m. high; area: 2.10 sq. m.; capacity: 2.62 cu. m. Found open and plundered. See list for objects from thieves’ debris, including an extensive series of wood models from boat(s),  and an uninscribed limestone false door.

Although models of daily life including boat models are associated with tombs of the First Intermediate Period and the Middle Kingdom, they also occur earlier at the end of Dynasty 6, for example in the tomb of a different Idu published in Junker, Giza VIII, 90-107, cited by Baer, Rank and Title, No. 79, p. 62. Fischer calls my attention to the boat models mentioned by Smith, Hist. of Egyptian Sculpture, 80, 93; Junker, Giza X, 171; and the wooden statue of a ḏryt-mourner, “kite,” in Drioton and Lauer, ASAE 55 (1958) pls. 11 b, 12 a, b, following p. 251, a tomb which also contained a seated oarsman on the same scale and several small oars.

 

G 7101 L(Click to locate) North of J and in contact with it. Shaft .96 x .84 m., - 1.95 m. in rock, lined above in c.b. and rubble .80 m. Chamber on west of type 6 a (2): 1.92 x .76 m., .85 m. high; area: 1.46 sq. m.; capacity: 1.24 cu. m. Found open and completely plundered. In surface debris between J and L were found fragments of pottery, alabaster, etc., recorded in list (24-12-150 to 160).

G 7101 M(Click to locate) See above, chief shaft of mastaba with burial of Qar.

G 7101 N(Click to locate) Outlying to west, 4 m. east of stair of G 7000 X (Hetepheres). Shaft: 2.60 x .86 m., -4.15 m. in rock on east and -4.55 m. on west, lining not preserved. Side chamber on west: 2.40 x .95 m., 1.05 m. high; area: 2.28 sq. m.; capacity: 2.39 cu. m. Completely plundered. In surface debris south of shaft were broken vessels and models (24-12-232 to 242).

G 7101 O.  (Click to locate) West of L. Shaft .90 x .64 m., ends at rock, lined with c.b. 2.20 m. Chamber on north, type 8 b (2), 2.90 x .60 m., .90 m. high; area: 1.74 sq. m.; capacity 1.56 cu. m. Completely plundered.

G 7101 P. (Click to locate) North of N and west of S. Shaft 1.75 x .90 m., -0.45 m. in rock, lined above with c.b. 1.35 m. No chamber at base of shaft, but the top as preserved was the lower part of a chamber of type 8 which may have been reused. Chamber of type 8 b (2) on south, 2.30 x .47 m., with upper part destroyed; area: 1.08 sq. m. Burial on left side, head north. Perhaps represents two burial places.

G 7101 Q(Click to locate) At 2.75m. north of northern end of Hetepheres stairs are two shafts side by side, Q on the west and R on the east. Shaft 1.23 x .82 m., ends at rock, lined with c.b. 1.20 m. Chamber on south of type 8 b (2): 2.70 x .70 m., .65 m. high; area: 1.98 sq. m.; capacity: 1.23 cu. m. Burial half in and half out of chamber.

G 7101 R(Click to locate) Against east side of Q. Shaft 1.21 x .96 m., ends at rock, lined with c.b. 1.35 m. Chamber on north of type 8 b (2): 2.07 x .73 m., .55m. high; area: 1.51 sq. m.: capacity: .83 cu. m. Burial, head to north, pulled out into shaft. Beside the heel was half of a bivalve shell.

G 7101 S(Click to locate) Beside O on west. Shaft 1.14 x 1.00 m., ends at rock, lined with c.b. 2.10 m. Chamber on north of type 8 b (2): 3.26 x .69 m., .80 m. high; area: 2.25 sq. m.: capacity: 1.80 cu. m. Completely plundered.

G 7101 T(Click to locate) North of L adjoining U on south. Shaft 1.00 x .90 m., ends at rock, lined with c.b. 1.90 m. No chamber. Type 7 X. See list for objects in debris (24-12-264 to 275).

G 7101 U(Click to locate) Beside T on north. Shaft .97 x 1.1 m., -2.75 m. in rock, lined with c.b. above, 1.75 m. Chamber on west of type 6 a (2): 1.72 x .92 m., 1.10 m. high; area: 1.58 sq. m.; capacity: 1.73 cu. m. Completely plundered. See objects noted under shaft T.

G 7101 V(Click to locate) Isolated, east of L and north of B-E. Shaft .75 x .80 m., on chamber side ends at rock, on west side shaft partly cut in rock. 1.05 m., lined with c.b., 1.50m. Chamber of type 8 a (1): 1.75 x .70 m., .50 m. high; area: 1.22 sq. m.; capacity: .61 cu. m. Completely plundered.

G 7101 W and X(Click to locate) Within mastaba area, described above.

G 7101 Y(Click to locate) Between G 7101 and G 7102, east of the court (C) of G 7101. Shaft .80 x .91 m., -2.60 m. in rock on east and -2.85 m. on west, lined above with c.b. on south, west, and north, 2.20 m., lined on east with masonry of seven courses for 2.00 m. Chamber on west of type 6 a (2): 2.14 x .74 m., 1.25 m. high; area: 1.58 sq. m.; capacity: 1.97 cu. m. Completely plundered.

G 7101 Z.  (Click to locate) originally marked G 7102 Z. South of Y. An east-west shaft along north side of chamber F of Qar and accidentally breaking into it at its northeast corner. Shaft .80 x .50 m., ends at rock, lined with masonry, 2.05 m. Chamber of type 8 b (2) on east: 2.00 x .80 m., 1.20 m. high; area: 1.60 sq. m.: capacity: 1.92 cu. m. Completely plundered.

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