The Mastabas of Qar and Idu G 7101 and 7102 - Digitally Revised and Enhanced Edition
Part I - Qar G 7101
Section 3 - Court (C)
Court C in relation with area north of G7110-7120; Qar(G7101) and Idu (G7102) (click to enlarge)
Two fine limestone blocks span the south face and are neatly joined at the center over the central rock-cut supporting pillar, total length ca. 6.27 m., inscribed in three lines in sunk relief as follows: Left half (A 1 to A 3), reading right to left with a seated figure of Qar with full wig, broad collar, and bracelets, facing right with a staff at left end. Right half (B 1 to B 3), reading left to right with a similar seated figure of Qar facing left at right end. See pl. VI; fig. 20.
Pl. VI. a. Qar, Court C, looking south, statue niche on left
Pl. VI. b. Qar, Court C, looking south; south wall with chamber D beyond
Figure 20. Qar (G 7101). Court C, south wall, architrave (Click to enlarge)
A 1 Ḫnty-š Mry-Rꜥ-mn-nfr ir ḥtpt sb imꜣḫ Mry-Rꜥ-nfr rn.f nfr, “tenant farmer of Meryre-mennefer, one who acquired offerings, one who passed on to a well provided state, Meryre-nefer, his good name."
Evidently the name Qar in the next line is considered to follow the expression “his good name;” the names Meryre-nefer and Qar alternate.
A 2 Imy-r niwt Nṯry-Mn-kꜢw-Rꜥ sš ꜥ nswt ḫft ḥr sꜢb imy-r sšw imꜢḫw Ḳꜣr, “overseer of the pyramid city Netjery-Menkaure, king’s letter-scribe in the presence, sꜣb-official, overseer of scribes, the well provided Qar.”
A 3 Sḥḏwꜥ bw Wr-Ḫꜥ.f-Rꜥ sš ꜥ nswt ḫft ḥr sꜢb imy-r sšw ḥm-nṯr Mꜣꜥt Ḳꜣr, “inspector of the weeb priests of Wer-Khafre, king’s letter scribe in the presence, sꜣb-official, overseer of scribes, priest of Maat, Qar.
B 1 Ḫnty-š Mry-Rꜥ-mn-nfr imꜣḫw ḫr nṯr-ꜥꜣ Mry-Rꜥ-nfr, “tenant farmer of Meryre-mennefer, well provided before the great god, Meryre-nefer.”
B 2 Imy-r niwt ꜣḫt-Ḫwfw sš ꜥ nswt ḫft ḥr imꜣḫ(w) Ḳꜣr, “overseer of the pyramid city Akhet-Khufu, king’s letter scribe in the presence, the well provided Qar.”
B 3 Sš ꜥ nswt ḫft ḥr sꜣb imy-r sšw ḥry sštꜣ n kꜣt nbt Ḳꜣr, “king’s letter scribe in the presence, s5b-official, overseer of scribes, privy-counsellor of all works, Qar.”
Pl. IX c-f. Qar, Court C, composite photo of (1) architrave support, east jamb, east face, (2) central pillar, east face (on left), (3) central pillar, north face (on right) and (4) architrave support, west jamb, west face (from left to right)
Figure 21. Qar (G7101). Court C, south wall, pillar and jambs (Click to enlarge)
Two jambs and one pillar, cut in the natural rock, support the architrave (see above). Each north face bears a vertical inscription.
East jamb, north face beneath left end of architrave (D 1). Pl. VI b. Vertical inscription, signs facing right. Imy-r kꜣt nb(t) Ḳꜣr: determinative: seated man facing right holding sḫm-wand and staff, “overseer of all works Qar.”
Central pillar, north face, beneath center of architrave (E 1). Pl. VI b. Vertical inscription facing left. Sš ꜥ nswt ḫft ḥr Ḳꜣr, determinative: seated man facing left holding sḫm-wand and staff, “king’s letter-scribe in the presence Qar.”
East jamb, east face (D 2). Pl. IX d. Three column vertical inscription, left to right; below, a standing figure facing left (north) with pointed skirt, holding staff in right hand and a folded cloth, perhaps part of skirt, in left. (1) H̱ry tp nswt mdw rḫyt, (2) iwn knmwt mꜣꜥ, (3) Ḳꜣr, “(1) he who is at the head of the king, staff of the people, (2) true pillar of Kenmet, (3) Qar.”
Central pillar, east side (E 2). Pl. IX e. Three line horizontal inscription, right to left. Below, a standing figure facing right (north) with pointed skirt, staff in left hand and folded cloth, perhaps part of skirt, in right. (1) ..., (2) Ḳꜣr rn.f nfr, (3) Mry-Rꜥ-nfr, “(1) [illegible], (2) Qar, his good name, (3) Meryre-nefer.”
Pillar, west side (E 3). Pl. IX f. Four column vertical inscription with fifth horizontal line below, left to right. Below: standing figure facing left (north) with shoulder-length wig and short beard, wearing band across chest and leopard-skin. In right hand he holds a staff diagonally in front. (l) Sš ꜥ nswt ḫft ḥr, (2) sꜣb imy-r sšw, (3) ḥry sštꜣ, (4) n kꜣt nbt, (5) Mry-Rꜥ-nfr, “(1) king’s letter-scribe in the presence, (2) sꜣb-official, overseer of scribes, (3) privy counsellor, (4) of all works, (5) Meryre-nefer.”
West jamb, north face, under right end of architrave (F 1). Pl. VI b. Vertical inscription, signs facing left. Seated man determinative facing left holding sḫm-wand and staff: sꜣb imy-r sšw Ḳꜣr, “sꜣb-official, overseer of scribes Qar.”
West jamb, west face (F 2). Pl. IX c. Three column vertical inscription, right to left. Below, standing man facing right (north) in pointed skirt, left arm holding staff, right hand open at side. (1) Sš ꜥ nswt ḫft ḥr, (2) sꜣb imy-r sšw, (3) Mry-Rꜥ-nfr, “(1) king’s letter-scribe in the presence, (2) sꜣb-official, overseer of scribes, (3) Meryre-nefer.”
Pl. VII. a. Qar, Court C, north wall with procession scene and doorway from corridor
Pl. VII. b. Detail of scene above doorway (top), Figure 22. a. Qar (G 7101). Court C, north wall, lintel (bottom) (Click to enlarge)
White limestone block: length ca. 1.74 m. Seven figures facing left, left to right, with inscribed captions: pl. VII a, b; fig. 22 a.
(a) Kneeling figure with both hands resting on a small table facing left, wꜣḥ iḫt in wt, “placing offerings by the embalmer.”
(b) Standing figure facing left, with short beard, sash, and pointed skirt; right arm extended in front, in gesture of address, left hand holding document. Above and under arm: wdn iḫt in ẖry-ḥꜣbt, “dedicating offerings by the lector priest."
(c) Standing man facing left, with short beard, sash, and pointed skirt, reading a papyrus roll. Above and under arm: sꜣḫt in ẖry-ḥꜣbt, “making glorifications by the lector priest.”
(d) and (e) Kneeling figure facing left with arms to ground in front, and standing man facing left pouring water from a jar over the hands of preceding figure: [rdit] mw, “[dispensing] water.”
(f) Standing man facing left, holding out a bowl in his right hand and an incense implement in his left. Above and under the bowl: rdi[t] snṯr, “dispensing incense.”
(g) Man walking to the right but with head turned left. He drags an aromatic broom along the ground behind him with his right hand and holds a papyrus roll in his left. Left and right: int rd and ẖry-ḥꜣbt, “bringing the broom,” and "lector priest."
For this interpretation of int rd and the ritual involved, see H. Altenmüller, JEA 57 (1971), 146-153, with reference to earlier literature and explanations. For another example, see Simpson, in North Carolina Museum of Art Bulletin 11, No. 3 (December, 1972), 2-13.
Pl. VIII. a, b, c, Qar, Court C, north wall with Qar seated before offerings (above) and procession with sarcophagus (below)
Figure 23. Qar (G7101). Court C, north wall, upper half (Click to enlarge)
Figure 24. Qar (G7101). Court C, north wall, lower half (Click to enlarge)
White limestone blocks with scenes in relief and incised offering list. Length ca. 4.69 m.: pls. VII a, VIII; figs. 23, 24.
Upper part: Table of bread and cupboard list. Left to right. Seated man facing right. He wears a wig of shoulder length with curls and a short beard. He wears a broad bead collar of eight strands and has a bead bracelet with spacers on each wrist. His short skirt is half pleated. His left fist is on his breast holding a folded cloth, and his right hand is extended toward the table of bread before him. He sits on a chair with lion legs and a low back, over which hangs the end of a cushion. Twenty-six loaves are shown on the table, and under it, on the right, a ewer with cover in a basin on a low stand. Under the table, on the left, is the vertical caption: dbḥt-ḥtp, “food offerings.’’ To the right is a large pile of offerings on various stands.
Inscription, right to left, over this whole scene: ... ḫꜣ ... ḫꜣ ... ḫꜣ ... ḫꜣ ... ḫꜣ gḥs(?) ḫꜣ šs ḫꜣ mnḫt ḫꜣ n imy-r ẖnw ẖry tp nswt imꜣḫw Ḳꜣr, “a thousand..., a thousand..., a thousand..., a thousand..., a thousand..., a thousand gazelles, a thousand clothes, a thousand linen for the overseer of the residence, he who is at the head of the king, the well provided Qar.”
Cupboard list: The remainder of this upper part, as far as the entrance doorway, is occupied by an incised cupboard-list comprising 99 compartments in three rows of 33 each.
Hassan, Excavations at Giza VI, Part II, 137-138, No. 87, pls. 81-88; W. Barta, Die altägyptische Opferliste, MAS 3, 1963. The items are also discussed with commentary in James, Khentika, passim.
Lower part, divided into two registers. The funeral procession. The action proceeds from left to right in the upper register, and continues from right to left below, representing the procession from the house to the purification tent, and thence, by boat to the place of embalming.
The scene and parallels for it have been frequently discussed and illustrated, many of the references being collected in Porter and Moss, Top. Biblio. III, 2nd ed., Part I, 184. For additional references, consult the notes to the parallel scene in Idu in Part 2 of the present monograph.
Upper register, procession with coffin, figures facing right: (1) Man walking facing right, with shoulder-length curled wig and short beard, pointed skirt and diagonal sash across chest. With both hands he holds out a scroll. H̱ry-ḥꜣbt, “lector-priest,” and below: sꜣḫt, “making glorification.” (2) Man advancing facing right, wearing short wig and short skirt, holding two crossed sticks with both hands. Wt, “embalmer.”
Lepsius, Denkmäler II, pl.56 (detail).
Men clapping two sticks together are represented in other contexts: Prentice Duell (ed.), The Mastaba of Mereruka, Vol. 2, pl. 116; Vandier, Manuel d’archeologie egyptienne, Part 4, p. 415, fig. 219 (= Lepsius, Denkmäler II, pl. 56.); Fischer, Dendera, p. 24, n. 98.
(3) Woman facing right, with short wig, fillet and streamer, broad collar and dress with one shoulder-strap. Her right hand grasps her left wrist. Ḏrt, “kite.”
A study of the ḏryt-mourner in the Old Kingdom is being prepared by Henry G. Fischer. The two “kites” are the chief female participants in the funeral ceremonies. In later times they impersonated the goddesses Isis and Nephthys. See Wilson, in JNES 3 (1944) 204.
(4) Seven pairs of men advancing facing right carrying a coffin on long poles. They have short wigs and short skirts; two pairs in front, three pairs beside the coffin, and two pairs behind. The coffin has projecting feet and a lid with cavetto cornice (note the difference from a coffin depicted in the lower register which lacks feet). Sḏꜣt m ḥtp r ibw r wꜥb m šms imꜣḫw, “transporting in peace to the purification tent for purification in the following of the well provided one.” (5) Man advancing facing right like the first. H̱ry-ḥꜣbt sꜣḫt, “lector-priest, making glorification.” (6) Man advancing facing right like the second above. Wt, “embalmer.” (7) Standing woman facing right with short wig, fillet and streamer, broad collar, long dress with one shoulder strap, arms as in the third above. Ḏrt, “kite.” This procession moves toward (8), a representation of the purification tent. On its roof are shown eight piles, including three tables, two bowls, two jars, a bag, sandals, and a hand. Two compartments are shown in the structure. At either side is the designation wꜣt, “road.” At right: dbḥw nibw ḏꜣt-rꜣ, “requirements of the purification-hut, a meal,” with four food offerings below.
On ḏꜣt-rꜣ, see Grdseloff, in ASAE 39 (1939) 397-400.
At left: dbḥw n ḥmt ẖry-ḥꜣbt, “requirements of the craft of the lector priests,” with two chests. To the right of the purification tent is (9) a man advancing facing right like the first and fifth above, labeled sꜣḫt and ẖry-ḥꜣbt, “making glorification,’’ and “lector-priest.” (10) Group of two figures facing each other and leaning forward with one hand raised to mouth: on left
Illustrated by Grdseloff, in ASAE 39 (1939) 398, fig. 18.
(10 a) man carrying a long stick: ḏd-mdw in wt, “recitation by the embalmer.” On right (10 b) woman with short wig, fillet, and streamer, in long dress; right hand supporting left elbow: ḏd-mdw in ḏrt, “recitation by the kite.” Below, between the two figures a table containing food and drink, the same four elements shown in the right section of the tent: ḏꜣt-rꜣ, “a meal.” (11) Two calves with bound legs: ḳꜣs, “fettered.”
Lower part: lower register. Continuation of the action depicted in the upper register: reading right to left with figures facing left: (12) Seven pairs of men advancing facing left, carry a coffin on a long pole: two pairs in front, three pairs beside the coffin, two pairs behind: šms m ḥtp r šꜣbt imꜣḫw smr wꜥty Ḳꜣr, “conducting in peace to the shabet-boat the well-provided sole companion Qar.”
For a discussion of this boat, see Junker, Giza V, 68-71; for the funeral boats, see Wilson, in JNES 3 (1944).
(13) The shabet-boat, bearing the coffin under a canopy, is being towed over water to the left.
On the boat, bow to stern, are eight figures as follows: (13 a) The pilot standing in the bow carries a long sounding-pole trailing in the water; no caption. (13 b) Man seated facing left, with one knee raised: wt, “embalmer.” (13 c) Man seated facing left, with one knee raised, wearing curled wig and sash across chest: ẖry-ḥꜣbt, “lector-priest.” (13 d) Woman seated facing left; curled wig, fillet and streamer; dress with one shoulder-strap: ḏrt, “kite.” (13 e) Man seated facing left, with one knee raised, in an extension of the canopy. His right hand on his chest, his left grasping the coffin behind him: imy-r wtw, “overseer of the embalmers.” (13 f) Behind the coffin in its canopy: seated woman like 13 d: ḏrt, “kite.” (13 g, h) Two steersmen facing left, the first standing, the second seated, both holding long oars. I nb šps iꜣm n mrwt, “Oh my noble lord, pleasant of love.” (14) Two superimposed rows of ten men each facing left, hauling on two ropes and looking back at the boat. Above the upper row: t wꜥb pw n Pr-Ptḥ iw n smr wꜥty Ḳꜣr imꜣḫw ir n Ḫnwt, “this pure bread of the temple of Ptah, it is for (?) Qar,
On t wꜥb of a god or a temple, see James, Khentika, pls. 31-32; Borchardt, Denkmäler des alten Reiches I, pl. 52; Naville, XIth Dynasty Temple III, pl. 2; Capart, Rue des tombeaux, 47.
a well provided one whom Khenut has borne.” Above the lower row : ir n Inpw smꜣ-tꜣ m ḥtp n imy-r ẖnw Mry-Rꜥ-nfr ir n Ḫnwt, “it is a landing in peace which Anubis has made for the overseer of the residence, Meryre-nefer, whom Khenut has borne.”
Pl. XVIII b. Idu, north wall, top (tympanum)
This manner of citing the name of the mother seems unusual, but it is doubtful that any other interpretation is possible. For ir n Inpw smꜣ tꜣ, see the north wall of Idu (pl. XVIII b; fig. 39, and Macramulla, Le mastaba d’ldout, pl. 8.
(15) Above. Four women facing left, in long dresses. The first three have their right arms extended forward, their left arms hanging, and wear a pair of sash terminals(?) from the waist. The fourth has both hands held up in front. Over this group a caption: ḥꜣt in šnḏty, “mourning by the two acacias.”
Edel, Das Akazienhaus, 16.
In front of the first three: ibꜣ, “dancing,” in front of the fourth: mꜣḥ, “clapping.” Below. Woman facing left, advancing in long dress, both arms held out in front; bbit, “leader.”
Not otherwise known (?). See Grdseloff, in ASAE 42 (1943) 115.
Two men facing left, in pointed skirts, leaning forward and trailing whips in front of them: ḫnmsw(y) šnḏt, “friends of the acacia-house.”
Edel, Das Akazienhaus, 16. Sethe, in ZÄS 63 (1928) 63, as diminutive of nbt, “mistress.”
(16) Representation of the wabet, the place of embalming. A schematic plan of the building shows a pile of objects at the top, and below, an angled entry (right), a long corridor, an outer L-shaped room, a vestibule, and an inner room. In the outer room stands a man holding out a jar. Above him is the caption: iw ẖry-ḥꜣbt ḥr pr, “the lector-priest attends to the house.” In the vestibule a similar, smaller figure also holds out a jar. In the inner room is a caption: ḥrt-ib nt wꜥbt ꜥḥꜥw, “inner room of the wabet of attending.”
Edel, in ZÄS 96 (1969) 5.
Pl. IX a. Qar, Court C, west wall, relief block in situ (top), Figure 25. Qar (G 7101). Court C, west wall, block in situ (bottom) (Click to enlarge)
Fine limestone block with relief scene, set into rock-cut wall (pl. IX a; fig. 25). Length ca. 4.23 m., its base 61.5 cm. above floor. At left: (1) Wife facing right, standing behind Qar facing right, who is seated at a table of bread (2). To right, in two registers facing left, seven men performing various actions (3) to (9) above: below, facing left, seven men (10) to (13).
(1) Standing woman facing right. Short curled wig with fillet and long streamer: broad collar, bracelets and anklets; close fitting white dress to ankles with decorated shoulder-straps. Left hand on breast, right arm hanging open. Inscription: above facing right and below in front vertically: [rḫ]t nswt ḥmt-nṯr [Ḥwt-Ḥr], and ḥmt.f mrt.f imꜣḫwt Gfi, “king’s [acquaintance], priestess [of Hathor]” and “his beloved wife, the well provided, Gefi.” (2) Man seated facing right before a table of bread. Curled wig to shoulder and short beard; broad collar and bracelets; half-pleated skirt. Left hand on breast holding a folded cloth with both ends curved, right hand extended toward table of bread. Seated on a chair with lion legs and a low back, over which hangs a cushion. Inscriptions: above the table of bread facing right: sš ꜥ nswt ḫft-ḥr Ḳꜣr, “king’s letter scribe in the presence, Qar.” Beneath the table, left: “a thousand bread, a thousand beer, a thousand fowl.” Beneath the table, right, facing left: dbḥt ḥtp, “food offerings,” above a low stand bearing two ewers in basins and a jar.
(3) Man advancing facing left. Curled wig and short skirt. Both hands held out in front with thumbs and little fingers extended and other fingers closed, in the characteristic gesture of anointing. In front of his face: sš mḏꜣt nṯr mꜣꜥ pr-ꜥꜣ Idw, “true scribe of the god’s scroll, Idu.” Below his arms: wrḥ, “anointing.” (4) Man advancing facing left. Curled wig and short skirt. He carries before him a table on which are three vessels captioned mrḥt, “oils.” Below his arms, iw n ft.f, “[it] is for salving him.” (5) Man advancing facing left. Curled wig and short skirt. He holds out before him a vessel in which he places a pellet: rdit snṯr, “dispensing incense.” (6) Kneeling man facing left. Curled wig, short beard and short skirt. He holds a basin with a pellet into which (7) is pouring, and places a second pellet in it. Before his face is his name, Wsri, “Wosre,” perhaps to be read as Wsi (Edel, Grammatik I, § 128). (7) Standing man facing left. Curled wig and short skirt. He holds out in front with both hands a jar from which he pours water into the vessel held by (6) below. Over (6) and (7): ḳbḥ ṯꜣwy, “libation with 2 pellets.’’ Below the arms of (7): sš Idw, “the scribe Idu.” (8) Standing man facing left. Curled wig and short skirt. He clasps in both arms before him two vertically held bolts of cloth wnḫw(y), “two bolts of cloth.” (9) Kneeling man facing left. Curled wig and band across chest. He holds with both hands a haunch of beef, above: ẖry-ḥꜣbt, “lector-priest;” below: Idw, “Idu.” Behind him is a table on which stand a loaf, a jar, and an unidentified object.
(10) Kneeling man facing left. Curled wig and short beard. His left arm is extended forward with hand resting on top of an inverted jar from which he pours liquid onto a slab. His right hand rests on the slab. Above and in front: sꜣṯ imy-r ḥmw-ḳꜣ Nḫti, “pouring, the overseer of funerary priests, Nakhti.” (11) Kneeling man facing left. Curled wig but no beard. He holds out a basin and below it is a small table with loaves and a jar: pr(t)-ḫrw m dbḥt-ḥtp sš Idw, “invocation offering consisting of food requirements, the scribe Idu.” (12) Three kneeling men facing left. All with curled wigs, the second and third with short beards. All have their right fist on their chests and left fists raised behind: sꜣḫt rꜥ-nb in wt(w) rꜥ-nb, “daily glorification by the embalmers every day.” (13) Two standing men advancing facing left. Both have curled wigs, short beards, bands across chest and short skirts. Each holds out a scroll with both hands. Both are captioned ẖry-ḥꜣbt, “lector.” Additional caption below the first: sš mḏꜣt nṯr pr-ꜥꜣ sš…, “scribe of the god’s scroll of the palace, the scribe... .” Name missing. The stone is broken away below knee level of the second figure, eliminating any additional titles and his name.
This wall of Court C is rock-cut and bears no inscriptions or reliefs. In a niche is a rock-cut seated statue, presumably of Qar, once plastered and painted, with a long wig, both hands on knees, the right hand open, palm down, the left with closed fist (pl. IX b; fig. 2).
Pl. IX b. Qar, Court C, east wall, statue in niche
Figure 2. Qar (G 7101). Section from A to B (Click to enlarge)
There are traces of a white gesso coating, but no note of any preserved color, and no trace of any inscription. The niche measures approximately 1.18 m. in height and 0.85 m. wide. Its floor is ca. 65 cm. above the floor of Court C, and its south edge is ca. 60 cm. north of the south-east corner of the court.
Photos from the Archive
Cemetery G 7000, G 7101, Qar, court C, looking SSE through pillared entrance to row of rock-cut statues on S wall of room D
G 7101, Qar, court C, S side, looking SSW through pillared entrance into room D to rock-cut statues on S wall of room D and doorway to room E (on right)
G 7101, Qar, court C, rock-cut statue niche (on left), looking SSW to pillared entrance of room D from doorway from lower stairs landing (B2)